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Radio Propagation : Space Weather : Sunspot Cycle Information

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Take a listen to the Space Weather Podcast!

NW7US Space Weather / Radio Proapgation Podcast; E4 - Subject: No more sunspots by 2015!? It is possible, if the trend revealed in current sunspot research at Kitt Peak, AZ, continues. Listen now!

Podcast home: NW7US Podcast


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Gain the on-air edge: This article explains how the ANTENNA is the key! -> Read this introduction to Antenna Modeling


STEREO 3D

STEREO 3D IMAGE

X-ray Conditions (Flares) 5-min.

X-ray plot

X-ray Conditions (Flares) 1-min.

X-ray plot

Geomagnetic Conditions (Kp)

plot of Kp

Satellite Environment Plot:


Satellite Environment Plot





Main Propagation Menu:

+ Sunspot Cycle/MUF/FOT Tables
+ Current Optimal Frequencies
+ Aurora Resources

How-To Articles:

- Is HF Propagation Reciprocal?
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Check out the ACE-HF propagation software - the latest is version 2.05. ACE-HF is propagation forecasting and modeling for Amateur Radio as well as for Shortwave radio Listening and general HF operation. This software is even used by the military and other clients around the world. This software is developed and maintained by the same engineers that keep VOACAP up-to-date. As a result, this software is the most accurate user interface integrated with VOACAP. CHECK IT OUT, TODAY. This software is the most accurate modeling software available, and is endorsed by NW7US. Read the details to find out why.




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Warnings/Alerts issued
in the last 24 hours, if any:

(Key: NOAA Scales)



[ live aurora display ]
[ auroral power maps ]

[ d-layer conditions ]

[ latest solar images 1 ]
[ latest solar images 2 ]
[ latest solar images 3 ]

[ active solar regions ]
[ current solar region image ]

[ What is a flare and its class? ]

Recent Space Environment Reports:

+ Reports of Solar & Geophysical Activity
+ Solar & Geophysical Activity Summaries

From the Space Environment Center:

Solar X-ray Flux

+ A 3 day plot of 5-minute solar X-ray flux values measured on the GOES 8 and 10 satellites.
+ A 6-hour 1-min Solar X-ray Flux plot

Satellite Environment Plot

[ Proton Flux ] [Electron Flux ]
[ GEOS Hp ] [ Estimated Kp ]

Additional Resources

+ SpaceW.com Aurora Network
+ D-Layer Absorption Conditions/Predictions
+ 160 Meter Propagation Forecast
+ Solar Physics Department of the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the official keepers of sunspot data.




Solar Activity Forecast
The Forecast of Solar Activity as well as Geomagnetic Activity

Probability of Flares
and Proton Events
EVENT
(Flare/Proton)
0-24 hrs
24-48 hrs
M-class
30%
20%
X-class
05%
01%
Proton
05%
01%
Geomagnetic Activity Probabilities

Middle latitudes
High latitudes

0-24 hrs
24-48 hrs
0-24 hrs
24-48 hrs
Active
05%
01%
05%
01%
Minor Storm
05%
01%
05%
01%
Major-severe Storm
05%
01%
05%
01%



Solar Sunspot Cycle 24 Progress

Solar Cycle 24 Smoothed Sunspot Progress
Solar Cycle 24 10.7-cm Monthly Progress
[ Solar Cycle Details ]

Do you want the latest solar conditions sent to you as an RSS feed? Click: XML RSS propagation feed

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This RSS is Validated:
This Propagation RSS Feed is a Valid RSS feed.

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This page was rendered on 18-Sep-14 0136 UTC.
This page was first created in 1998, by Tomas David Hood (NW7US)

Current Sunspot Cycle 24 Activity and Space Weather

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Sun Spots: 85 as of 09/16/2014 :: 10.7-cm Flux: 125 SFU
(SFU=Solar Flux Units)

NOAA Scales Activity
Range 1 (minor) to 5 (extreme)
NOAA Scale
Past 24 hrs
Current


Planetary A-index (Ap): 6 | Planetary K-index (Kp): 2
Solar Wind: 393 km/s at 6.0 protons/cm3, Bz is 7.0 nT
(Sep 18, 2014 at 0130 UT)

X-ray Solar Flares:
6h hi [C7.5][1926Z 09/17] 24h hi [C7.5][1926Z 09/17]

Background X-ray Level, Last Six Days

Sep 16 2014 :: B5.5
Sep 15 2014 :: B5.7
Sep 14 2014 :: B7.2
Sep 13 2014 :: B6.5
Sep 12 2014 :: B6.9
Sep 11 2014 :: B8.7


Check out the current Aurora Oval and activity.



If you are using software utilities such as Ace-HF, that require a "smoothed" sunspot number
(Referred to as the SSN), or the smoothed 10.7-cm flux index,
use the following predicted values in this table:

To understand more about the Maximum Usable Frequencies, and related
science, please read the MUF Basics Page.


Global HF Propagation Conditions
Global HF Propagation Conditions for 0100Z on 18 Sep, 2014
High Latitude: Fair-Normal
Middle Latitude: Normal
Low Latitude: Normal

Geomagnetic Latitude Ranges:
High: 60-90 degrees
Middle: 20-60 degrees
Low: 0-20 degrees


Global Ionospheric Map - Critical Frequencies - foF2 (Created with PropLab PRO)
Critical foF2 map (2014 June 08 at 1000 UTC)

At 0805 UTC, on 9 August 2011, a strong magnitude X6.9 X-ray flare -- the strongest yet in this current solar cycle (Cycle 24) -- erupted on the northwestern solar limb. Here is a HD Movie of the event:



Videos of Interest - Space Weather, Solar Dynamics Observatory, STEREO, and more... from the NW7US YouTube Channel. (Click on the small image to launch the video...)

Video: Voyager Finds Magnetic Foam at Solar Systems Edge
Video: Voyager Finds Magnetic Foam at Solar Systems Edge



Video: Zoom View of Prominence Eruption and X-Ray Flare - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011
Video: Zoom View of Prominence Eruption and X-Ray Flare - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011

Video: X-Ray Flare, Coronal Mass Ejection, Proton Storm - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011
Video: X-Ray Flare, Coronal Mass Ejection, Proton Storm - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011 (Close-up of the video, above)

Video: Stunning Close-up View of M3 X-Ray Flare 24 February 2011
Video: Stunning Close-up View of M3 X-Ray Flare 24 February 2011



Video: June 2011 20-meter (14-Mhz) JT65A Coverage Map of NW7US Radio Signal
Video: June 2011 20-meter (14-Mhz) JT65A Coverage Map of NW7US Radio Signal



The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Latest Solar Images
Click on an image for full-sized view





SDO - Solar Dynamics Observatory     SDO - Solar Dynamics Observatory

D Region Absorption Predictions (D-RAP) Global Map

Map, Above: Conditions in the D region of the ionosphere have a dramatic effect on high frequency (HF) communications and low frequency (LF) navigation systems. The global D Region Absorption Predictions (D-RAP) depicts the D region at high latitudes where it is driven by particles as well as low latitudes, where photons cause the prompt changes.

Note: At times, images may appear broken or missing, when SDO is working on the AIA/HMI instruments.


The NW7US Current Sunspot and Geophysical Activity Report
The observations, prognastications, and comments by NW7US
NW7US is Tomas David Hood, Propagation and Space Weather Columnist
for CQ Communications

More about Background X-rays

The hard X-ray energy present from the wavelengths of 1 to 8 Angstroms provide the most effective ionizing energy throughout all of the ionospheric layers in our atmosphere. The GEOS satellites measure these wavelengths and the resulting measurements are reported as the "background X-ray level" throughout the day. A daily average is reported, as well.

Just like X-ray flares, the background hard X-ray level is measured in watts per square meter (W/m2), reported using the categories, A, B, C, M, and X. These letters are multipliers; each class has a peak flux ten times greater than the preceding one. Within a class there is a linear scale from 1 to 9.

If one records the daily background X-ray levels for the course of a sunspot cycle, one would discover that the background X-ray levels remained at the A class level during the sunspot cycle minumum. During the rise and fall of a solar cycle, the background X-ray energy levels remained mostly in the B range. During peak solar cycle periods, the background energy reached the C and sometimes even M levels.

Armed with this information, can we discover any clues as to the current status of Sunspot Cycle 24? Below is a graph plotting the background hard X-ray energy reported by the GEOS satellites since the end of Sunspot Cycle 22. Clearly, we see a noticeable rise in Cycle 24 activity. We're seeing the energy mostly in the B level more often, supporting the view that Cycle 24 is alive and moving along toward an eventual sunspot cycle peak in several years.

Overall, the monthly average background 'hard' X-ray level is rising (as seen by the following plot), showing a change from deep solar cycle minimum. We are certainly in the rising phase of Sunspot Cycle 24. While it has been a slow up-tick over the last eighteen months, I expect to see a more rapid rise during mid to late 2011.

Background X-ray (1 to 8 Angstrom) Plot



Highlights of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
Covering the period: 08 - 14 September 2014

Solar activity ranged from low to high levels during the period. Moderate levels were reached on 8, 11, and 14 September with high levels reached on 10 September. Moderate levels were first reached on 09 September at 0029 UTC when active sunspot region 2158 (N16, L=087, class/area Dkc/440 on 11 September) produced a long duration M4/1n flare. This flare had associated Type II (999 km/s estimated shock velocity) and Type IV radio sweeps, a 10cm (370 sfu) radio burst, and an asymmetrical, full-halo coronal mass ejection (CME) which was first observed in LASCO/C2 imagery at 09/0006 UTC. The majority of the ejecta appeared to be heading north and east of the Sun/Earth line, however, it was later determined this event contained an Earth-directed component. On 10 September, conditions reached High levels as Region 2158 produced a X1/2b flare at 1745 UTC. It also had associated Type II (3750 km/s estimated shock velocity) and Type IV radio sweeps, a 10cm (1300 sfu ) radio burst, and an Earth-directed full halo CME. On 11 September, Region 2166 (N13, L=352, class/area Dao/60 on 14 September) produced an M2 flare at 1526 and an M1 flare at 2126 UTC, just prior to rotating on to the visible disk. After returning to low levels on 12 and 13 September, conditions again rose to Moderate levels as Region 2157 (S14, L=98, class/area Ekc/540 on 6 September) produced an M1/2n flare at 14/0216 UTC. The coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with this M-flare was observed off the west limb in SOHO/LASCO C2 coronagraph imagery beginning at 14/0248 UTC, but was deemed to be well off the Sun-Earth line. Other activity included a filament eruption observed in SDO/AIA 193 imagery beginning at 12/1749 UTC west of Region 2158 near center-disk. SOHO/LASCO C2 imagery showed a coronal mass ejection (CME) beginning at 12/1936 UTC that was mostly obscured by a larger backsided CME off the NNE limb that preceded it beginning at 12/1836 UTC. WSA-ENLIL modeling of the event indicates a likely CME arrival around midday on 16 Sep.

The greater than 10 MeV proton flux was elevated on 8 and 9 September due to a particle enhancement from an event the week prior. Late on 10 September, levels began a quick rise following the X1/2b flare from Region 2158, mentioned earlier. By 11 September, the greater than 10 MeV levels had reached a peak of 28 pfu (S1 - Minor), but then leveled off for the next 24 hours. Storm levels briefly reached the S2 (Moderate) threshold, in conjunction with the arrival of the CME, and reached a maximum of 126 pfu at 12/1355 UTC. During this time, the greater than 100 MeV proton flux levels began to rise as well, reaching the 1.2 pfu at 11/0425 UTC level before tapering off shortly thereafter.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit was at normal levels on 8, 9, 11, 13, and 14 September, and reached moderate levels on 10 and 12 September.

Geomagnetic field activity was at quiet to severe storm levels during the period. Quiet to unsettled levels occurred from 8 to 11 September, with an isolated active period on 11 September. A geomagnetic Sudden Impulse (33 nT) was observed at the Boulder magnetometer at 11/2346 UTC, indicating the arrival of the 09 Sep CME as anticipated. The geomagnetic field responded, pushing geomagnetic field conditions to minor storm levels. Conditions moderated for approximately 9 hours back at quiet to unsettled levels, until the second CME arrived at Earth. Total field rose to a max of 31 nT and solar wind increased to near 790 km/s by late on 12 September. A geomagnetic sudden impulse of 43 nT was observed at the Boulder magnetometer at 12/1555 UTC. Conditions then increased to minor to severe storm levels for the next 9 hours. Conditions fell to active levels early on 13 September and continued to decline to quiet levels by mid day as the Bz component remained in a northward orientation (not well connected). Quiet conditions remained through 14 September.



Monthly and smoothed sunspot number - The monthly mean sunspot number (blue) and 13-month smoothed monthly sunspot number (red) for the last five cycles. You can see that this current cycle, Cycle 24, is a weak cycle, compared to the last few.

(Click to see actual size)
Monthly and smoothed sunspot number chart

Daily and monthly sunspot number (last 13 years)

Daily sunspot number (yellow), monthly mean sunspot number (blue), smoothed monthly sunspot number (red) for the last 13 years and 12-month ahead predictions of the monthly smoothed sunspot number:

SC (red dots) : prediction method based on an interpolation of Waldmeier's standard curves; It is only based on the sunspot number series.

CM (red dashes) : method (from K. Denkmayr and P. Cugnon) combining a regression technique applied to the sunspot number series with the aa geomagnetic index used as a precursor (improved predictions during the minimum phase between solar cycles).

(Click to see actual size)
Daily and monthly sunspot number (last 13 years)

What is 'Space Weather'? Click on these two information slides to view them in full size:

What is Space Weather? Slide 1 of 2 What is Space Weather? Slide 2 of 2





View of numbered sunspot regions and plages (if any)
Source: http://www.solarmonitor.org/.
(Click for large view)

Active Regions and Plages

Active sunspot regions, and plages, identified by SIDC

SIDC Solar Disc with active regions and plages


Latest GOES 15 Image of the Sun

Latest GOES-15 Image of the Sun


STEREO IMAGES
STEREO Behind Image
What is coming
SOHO EIT 195 Image
Current View
STEREO Ahead Image
What was...


Real Time Solor Wind and Aurora:

On 2014 Sep 18 0133Z: Bz: 7.3 nT
Bx: -2.4 nT | By: -3.6 nT | Total: 8.5 nT
Most recent satellite polar pass:
Centered on 09/18/2014 : 0022 UTC
Aurora Activity Level was 1 at 0022 UTC
visit noaa for latest.



[ See this current Aurora Oval Map ]

This is a video of the simulation from May 27-28, 2011, showing
the Geomagnetic disturbance caused by the solar wind




All NICT images are Copyright@NICT,
used by express, written permission from NICT








Space Weather and Propagation Forecast
Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA,
and the Space Weather Prediction Center

Three Day Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
(as of 2200Z on 16 Sep 2014)

Solar Forecast:

Solar activity is expected to be low with a chance for M-class flares on days one and two (17 Sep, 18 Sep) and likely to be low with a slight chance for an M-class flare on day three (19 Sep).

Geomagnetic Forecast:

The geomagnetic field is expected to be at quiet to active levels on day one (17 Sep) and quiet to unsettled levels on days two and three (18 Sep, 19 Sep).


Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
15 September - 11 October 2014

Solar activity is expected to be low with a chance for M-class flares through 27 September due to returning Regions 2149 (N09, L=284) and 2151 (S08, L=253). Activity is then likely to be moderate (R1-R2/Minor-Moderate) with a chance for X-class flaring (R3-Strong or greater) through the remainder of the period due to Regions 2157 and 2158 returning to the visible disk.

There is a chance for a greater than 10 MeV proton event from 29 September through the end of the period due to potential significant flare activity from Regions 2157 and 2158.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit is expected to be at normal to moderate levels from 15 to 18 September, before returning to normal levels through 25 September. Conditions should increase to normal to moderate with a chance for high levels from 26 September through 1 October in response to the recurrent coronal hole high speed stream (CH HSS). Conditions should fall back to normal to moderate levels from 2 - 11 October, with a chance for high levels from 7 to 9 October due to another CH HSS.

Geomagnetic field activity is expected to be at mostly quiet levels from 15 to 24 September, with isolated unsettled levels on 16 and 17 September, due to a recurrent CH HSS combined with CME activity from 12 September. Another recurrent CH HSS is expected to return on 25 September, making unsettled to active conditions likely through 30 September. Mostly quiet conditions are expected from 1 October to 5 October. A weak positive polarity coronal hole feature is likely to bring conditions up slightly, to the quiet to unsettled levels on 6 - 7 October, before returning to mostly quiet conditions for the remainder of the period.




Real-time foF2 map from IPS (Ionospheric Prediction Service), Australian Space Weather Agency

foF2 Map from IPS, Australia

Space Weather Page



Click on image to
view larger versions

The following images
are from SOHO

C2 LASCO Image
C3 LASCO Image

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Additional Views of the Sun

Be sure to check the Date shown in each photo - is it today's date?
(click to enlarge)

Current Numbered Sunspots / MDI MagnetogramCatania Solar Disc

H-Alpha View 1H-Alpha View 2




Purchase the STD Internet Space Weather & Radio Propagation Forecasting Course


Solar Terrestrial Dispatch (STD) is a world-leader in space weather forecasting services, as was demonstrated in late October and early November 2003 (Oler, C., "Prediction Performance of Space Weather Forecast Centers during the Extreme Space Weather Events of October and November 2003," published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal "Space Weather" by the American Geophysical Union in 2004). A copy of this paper is available here.

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NOTE: The certificate is no longer being offered. The course, never-the-less, still provides you with a very well-rounded knowledge base with which you can understand and work with space weather and radio propagation data.

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A list of the topics covered in this home-study course include:
  • The Sun
    • Basics of the Sun
    • Sunspots
      • Types of Sunspots
      • Sunspot Magnetic Fields
    • Solar Radiation and Radio Emissions
    • Solar Cycles
    • Techniques for Modelling Solar Cycles
    • Sources of Information and Imagery
  • Interplanetary Space
    • The Solar Wind
    • Magnetic Fields
    • Heliospheric Current Sheet
    • Solar Sector Structures
  • The Earth
    • Magnetosphere
      • The quiet magnetosphere
      • The disturbed magnetosphere
      • Understanding Magnetic Indices
      • Magnetic Storms
        • Sudden Storm Commencements (SSCs)
        • Gradual Storm Commencements
      • Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs)
        • Effects on Electrical Hydro Systems
        • Effects on Other Long Conductors
    • Ionosphere
      • Formation of Ionospheric Layers
      • Factors Affecting Ionospheric Layers
  • Solar Disturbances
    • Transient Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
      • Types and Structures of Coronal Mass Ejections
      • Understanding the Importance of CME Structures
      • Inferring CME Structures from Available Solar Data
      • Coronal Mass Ejection Detection Methods
      • Using IMPACT (software) to Aid in CME Disturbance Predictions
      • Solar Cycle Dependencies
    • Solar Flares
      • Basic Nature of Flares
      • Types of Flares
      • Flare Rating Systems
      • Significance of Proton Flares
      • Ground Level Events (GLEs)
      • Fast Transit Events
      • Interpreting Magnetograms
      • Determining Magnetic Shear and Flare Susceptability
      • Solar Flare (and Proton Flare) Prediction Techniques
      • Solar Flare Related Coronal Mass Ejection Prediction Techniques
      • Sources of Solar Flare Information
    • Solar Coronal Holes
      • Coronal Hole Basics
      • Recurrence
      • Solar Cycle Correlations
      • Associations with Near-Relativistic Electrons
      • Coronal Hole Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
    • Filament Eruptions
      • Filaments and Prominences
      • Eruptive and Non-Eruptive Activity
      • Filament-Associated Coronal Mass Ejections
      • Filament-Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
  • Auroral Activity
    • Basic Theory of the Northern/Southern Lights
    • Behavioral Characteristics of the Auroral Ovals
    • Sensitivity to Solar Disturbances
    • Affects on Satellite Health and Radio Communications
    • Mathematical Models of the Auroral Zones
    • Auroral Activity Prediction Techniques
    • Information Sources
  • Conditions Affecting Satellite Health
    • Atmospheric Drag
    • Surface Charging Anomalies
    • Deep Dialectric Charging Anomalies
    • Interplanetary Shocks
    • Magnetopause Crossings
  • Postulated Sun/Earth Climate Connections
    • Possible Long-Term Climatic Trends
      • Rainfall
      • Temperatures
      • Atmospheric Pressure
      • Storm Tracks
      • Ozone Correlations
    • Possible Short-Term Meteorological Trends
      • Pressure and Winds
      • Lightning
      • Storm Systems
      • Ozone Responses
  • Radio Propagation
    • Basic Theory (Non-Technical)
      • Characteristics and Components of Radio Signals
      • Understanding Plasmas
      • Importance of Electron Collisions
      • Appleton/Hartree Contributions
      • Signal Polarization and Coupling
      • Ionospheric Absorption
        • Deviative Absorption
        • Non-Deviative Absorption
      • Fading
      • Multipathing
      • Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances
      • Solar Related Disturbances
      • Structure of the Ionosphere
        • Ionospheric Layers
        • Importance of Sporadic-E
        • Effects of Spread-F
        • Solar-Cycle Dependencies
        • Models of the Ionosphere
          • Simple Mathematical Models
          • Numerical Maps
          • CCIR
          • URSI
          • The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)
          • Others
        • Probing the Ionosphere
        • Probing Techniques
        • Probing Instruments
        • Sources of Ionosonde Information
    • Basic Ray-Tracing Concepts
      • Ordinary vs Extraordinary Signals
      • Becoming Familiar with Ray-Tracing Software
    • Ray-Tracing in Three-Dimensions
      • Ray-Tracing Software Considerations
      • Preparing for 3D Ray-Tracings
      • Performing 3D Ray-Tracings
      • Studying 3D Ray-Tracing Results
    • Vertical Radio Signal Propagation
      • Signal Reflection Behavior
      • Critical Frequencies
      • Ray-Tracing Vertically-Incident Signals
    • Oblique Radio Signal Propagation
      • Signal Refraction/Reflection Characteristics
      • Effects of Geomagnetic Activity
      • Effects of Solar Activity
      • Ray-Tracing Obliquely Incident Radio Signals
      • Determination of Maximum Usable Frequencies
        • Simple Empirical Methods
        • Ray-Tracing Techniques
      • Effects of Sporadic-E
      • Non-Great-Circle (NGC) Propagation
        • Responsible Conditions
        • Compensation Methods
        • Ray-Tracing Techniques to Analyze NGC Propagation
      • Chordal-Hop and Inter-Layer Ducting Propagation
        • Advantages and Disadvantages
        • Analysis using Ray-Tracing Techniques
      • Searching for and Exploiting Exotic Propagation Paths
        • Properties of Exotic Paths
        • Searching for Exotic Paths using 3D Ray-Tracing Techniques
        • Determining the Most Reliable Exotic Radio Paths
    • Ionospheric Disturbances
      • Solar Related Disturbances
        • Solar Flares and Related Coronal Mass Ejections
        • Coronal Holes and High Speed Solar Wind Streams
        • Filament Related Coronal Mass Ejections
        • Impact of Flare Related Radio Noise Bursts
      • Short Wave Fadeouts
      • Sudden Phase Anomalies
      • Sudden Frequency Deviations
      • Devastating Effects of Polar Cap Absorption
      • Disturbances and their Effects on Satellite Communications
  • Radio Propagation Prediction Methods
    • Short-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Medium-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Long-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Sources of Forecasting Information
  • Applied Forecasting Techniques
    • Climatology
    • Pattern Recognition
    • Compiling Necessary Information
    • Exploiting Databases
    • Computer Related Aids
    • Studying Real-Life Examples
    • Developing Experience and "Intuition"
  • Field Experience
    • The STD SW Course presents you with some specific historic real-life scenarios. Using the information and techniques studied in this course, you are asked to develop your own space-weather and radio-propagation predictions. The actual real-life impacts are then studied and compared with your forecasts.
    • The Course presents you with several hypothetical (possible future) examples and ask you to develop your own forecasts.
  • Course Completed


NOTE: THE CERTIFICATE IS NO LONGER AVAILABLE...



Check out these books on Radio Propagation:

+ The New Shortwave Propagation Handbook (Paperback) - by George Jacobs, Theodore J. Cohen, R. B. Rose. The NEW Shortwave Progagation Handbook may well be the only book you'll need on the subject of ionospheric propagation! It is a "must read" for Radio Amateurs, Shortwave Listeners, and radio communicators of any type who need to make the most productive use of the radio spectrum, regardless of the time of day, the season of the year, or the state of the sunspot cycle. It will become your ever-present companion a the operating table as you master the art of shortwave radio progagation.

+ How Radio Signals Work (Paperback) - by Jim Sinclair. This book provides a basic understanding of the way radio signals work-without becoming bogged down with the technicalities. It covers all kinds of radio signal types--including mobile communications, short-wave, satellite, and microwave. No detailed knowledge of electronics or mathematics is required. A-Z coverage of radio signals including satellites, mobile communications, and short-wave radio. No math or electronics background necessary.

+ Introduction to RF Propagation (Hardcover) - by John S. Seybold. This book provides readers with a solid understanding of the concepts involved in the propagation of electromagnetic waves and of the commonly used modeling techniques. While many books cover RF propagation, most are geared to cellular telephone systems and, therefore, are limited in scope. This title is comprehensive-it treats the growing number of wireless applications that range well beyond the mobile telecommunications industry, including radar and satellite communications.



Data and images courtesy of IPS Australia, NOAA, NASA, SWPC, SIDC

Layout, analysis, commentary, and certain forecasts and content is
Copyright, 2014, Tomas David Hood (NW7US), all rights reserved.
No part, except for the space weather 'banners', may be copied without express permission.

Last Update: September 17, 2014